David Fuhrmann Consulting, Organizational Learning & Performance, Performance Management, Technical Training

February 20, 2020

Reinforcement and Punishment

Here is a great article I found on Lumen Learning. I did not write this article but find it a helpful source for understanding how to better achieve results in different situations.

In discussing operant conditioning, we use several everyday words—positive, negative, reinforcement, and punishment—in a specialized manner. In operant conditioning, positive and negative do not mean good and bad. Instead, positive means you are adding something, and negative means you are taking something away. Reinforcement means you are increasing a behavior, and punishment means you are decreasing a behavior. Reinforcement can be positive or negative, and punishment can also be positive or negative. All reinforcers (positive or negative) increase the likelihood of a behavioral response. All punishers (positive or negative) decrease the likelihood of a behavioral response. Now let’s combine these four terms: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment (Table 1).

ReinforcementPunishment
PositiveSomething is added to increase the likelihood of a behavior.Something is added to decrease the likelihood of a behavior.
NegativeSomething is removed to increase the likelihood of a behavior.Something is removed to decrease the likelihood of a behavior.

Reinforcement

The most effective way to teach a person or animal a new behavior is with positive reinforcement. In positive reinforcement, a desirable stimulus is added to increase a behavior.

For example, you tell your five-year-old son, Jerome, that if he cleans his room, he will get a toy. Jerome quickly cleans his room because he wants a new art set. Let’s pause for a moment. Some people might say, “Why should I reward my child for doing what is expected?” But in fact we are constantly and consistently rewarded in our lives. Our paychecks are rewards, as are high grades and acceptance into our preferred school. Being praised for doing a good job and for passing a driver’s test is also a reward. Positive reinforcement as a learning tool is extremely effective. It has been found that one of the most effective ways to increase achievement in school districts with below-average reading scores was to pay the children to read. Specifically, second-grade students in Dallas were paid $2 each time they read a book and passed a short quiz about the book. The result was a significant increase in reading comprehension (Fryer, 2010). What do you think about this program? If Skinner were alive today, he would probably think this was a great idea. He was a strong proponent of using operant conditioning principles to influence students’ behavior at school. In fact, in addition to the Skinner box, he also invented what he called a teaching machine that was designed to reward small steps in learning (Skinner, 1961)—an early forerunner of computer-assisted learning. His teaching machine tested students’ knowledge as they worked through various school subjects. If students answered questions correctly, they received immediate positive reinforcement and could continue; if they answered incorrectly, they did not receive any reinforcement. The idea was that students would spend additional time studying the material to increase their chance of being reinforced the next time (Skinner, 1961).

In negative reinforcement, an undesirable stimulus is removed to increase a behavior. For example, car manufacturers use the principles of negative reinforcement in their seatbelt systems, which go “beep, beep, beep” until you fasten your seatbelt. The annoying sound stops when you exhibit the desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that you will buckle up in the future. Negative reinforcement is also used frequently in horse training. Riders apply pressure—by pulling the reins or squeezing their legs—and then remove the pressure when the horse performs the desired behavior, such as turning or speeding up. The pressure is the negative stimulus that the horse wants to remove.

LINK TO LEARNING

Watch this clip from The Big Bang Theory to see Sheldon Cooper explain the commonly confused terms of negative reinforcement and punishment.

Punishment

Many people confuse negative reinforcement with punishment in operant conditioning, but they are two very different mechanisms. Remember that reinforcement, even when it is negative, always increases a behavior. In contrast, punishment always decreases a behavior. In positive punishment, you add an undesirable stimulus to decrease a behavior. An example of positive punishment is scolding a student to get the student to stop texting in class. In this case, a stimulus (the reprimand) is added in order to decrease the behavior (texting in class). In negative punishment, you remove a pleasant stimulus to decrease a behavior. For example, when a child misbehaves, a parent can take away a favorite toy. In this case, a stimulus (the toy) is removed in order to decrease the behavior.

Punishment, especially when it is immediate, is one way to decrease undesirable behavior. For example, imagine your four year-old son, Brandon, hit his younger brother. You have Brandon write 50 times “I will not hit my brother” (positive punishment). Chances are he won’t repeat this behavior. While strategies like this are common today, in the past children were often subject to physical punishment, such as spanking. It’s important to be aware of some of the drawbacks in using physical punishment on children. First, punishment may teach fear. Brandon may become fearful of the hitting, but he also may become fearful of the person who delivered the punishment—you, his parent. Similarly, children who are punished by teachers may come to fear the teacher and try to avoid school (Gershoff et al., 2010). Consequently, most schools in the United States have banned corporal punishment. Second, punishment may cause children to become more aggressive and prone to antisocial behavior and delinquency (Gershoff, 2002). They see their parents resort to spanking when they become angry and frustrated, so, in turn, they may act out this same behavior when they become angry and frustrated. For example, because you spank Margot when you are angry with her for her misbehavior, she might start hitting her friends when they won’t share their toys.

While positive punishment can be effective in some cases, Skinner suggested that the use of punishment should be weighed against the possible negative effects. Today’s psychologists and parenting experts favor reinforcement over punishment—they recommend that you catch your child doing something good and reward her for it.

WATCH IT

Make sure you understand the distinction between negative reinforcement and punishment in the following video:

You can view the transcript for “Learning: Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment” here (opens in new window).

Still confused? Watch the following short clip for another example and explanation of positive and negative reinforcement as well as positive and negative punishment.

You can view the transcript for “Operant Conditioning” here (opens in new window).

TRY IT

Shaping

In his operant conditioning experiments, Skinner often used an approach called shaping. Instead of rewarding only the target behavior, in shaping, we reward successive approximations of a target behavior. Why is shaping needed? Remember that in order for reinforcement to work, the organism must first display the behavior. Shaping is needed because it is extremely unlikely that an organism will display anything but the simplest of behaviors spontaneously. In shaping, behaviors are broken down into many small, achievable steps. The specific steps used in the process are the following: Reinforce any response that resembles the desired behavior. Then reinforce the response that more closely resembles the desired behavior. You will no longer reinforce the previously reinforced response. Next, begin to reinforce the response that even more closely resembles the desired behavior. Continue to reinforce closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. Finally, only reinforce the desired behavior.

Shaping is often used in teaching a complex behavior or chain of behaviors. Skinner used shaping to teach pigeons not only such relatively simple behaviors as pecking a disk in a Skinner box, but also many unusual and entertaining behaviors, such as turning in circles, walking in figure eights, and even playing ping pong; the technique is commonly used by animal trainers today. An important part of shaping is stimulus discrimination. Recall Pavlov’s dogs—he trained them to respond to the tone of a bell, and not to similar tones or sounds. This discrimination is also important in operant conditioning and in shaping behavior.

WATCH IT

Here is a brief video of Skinner’s pigeons playing ping pong.

You can view the transcript for “BF Skinner Foundation – Pigeon Ping Pong Clip” here (opens in new window).

It’s easy to see how shaping is effective in teaching behaviors to animals, but how does shaping work with humans? Let’s consider parents whose goal is to have their child learn to clean his room. They use shaping to help him master steps toward the goal. Instead of performing the entire task, they set up these steps and reinforce each step. First, he cleans up one toy. Second, he cleans up five toys. Third, he chooses whether to pick up ten toys or put his books and clothes away. Fourth, he cleans up everything except two toys. Finally, he cleans his entire room.

TRY IT

Primary and Secondary Reinforcers

Rewards such as stickers, praise, money, toys, and more can be used to reinforce learning. Let’s go back to Skinner’s rats again. How did the rats learn to press the lever in the Skinner box? They were rewarded with food each time they pressed the lever. For animals, food would be an obvious reinforcer.

What would be a good reinforce for humans? For your daughter Sydney, it was the promise of a toy if she cleaned her room. How about Joaquin, the soccer player? If you gave Joaquin a piece of candy every time he made a goal, you would be using a primary reinforcer. Primary reinforcers are reinforcers that have innate reinforcing qualities. These kinds of reinforcers are not learned. Water, food, sleep, shelter, sex, and touch, among others, are primary reinforcers. Pleasure is also a primary reinforcer. Organisms do not lose their drive for these things. For most people, jumping in a cool lake on a very hot day would be reinforcing and the cool lake would be innately reinforcing—the water would cool the person off (a physical need), as well as provide pleasure.

secondary reinforcer has no inherent value and only has reinforcing qualities when linked with a primary reinforcer. Praise, linked to affection, is one example of a secondary reinforcer, as when you called out “Great shot!” every time Joaquin made a goal. Another example, money, is only worth something when you can use it to buy other things—either things that satisfy basic needs (food, water, shelter—all primary reinforcers) or other secondary reinforcers. If you were on a remote island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and you had stacks of money, the money would not be useful if you could not spend it. What about the stickers on the behavior chart? They also are secondary reinforcers.

Sometimes, instead of stickers on a sticker chart, a token is used. Tokens, which are also secondary reinforcers, can then be traded in for rewards and prizes. Entire behavior management systems, known as token economies, are built around the use of these kinds of token reinforcers. Token economies have been found to be very effective at modifying behavior in a variety of settings such as schools, prisons, and mental hospitals. For example, a study by Cangi and Daly (2013) found that use of a token economy increased appropriate social behaviors and reduced inappropriate behaviors in a group of autistic school children. Autistic children tend to exhibit disruptive behaviors such as pinching and hitting. When the children in the study exhibited appropriate behavior (not hitting or pinching), they received a “quiet hands” token. When they hit or pinched, they lost a token. The children could then exchange specified amounts of tokens for minutes of playtime.

EVERYDAY CONNECTION: BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION IN CHILDREN

Parents and teachers often use behavior modification to change a child’s behavior. Behavior modification uses the principles of operant conditioning to accomplish behavior change so that undesirable behaviors are switched for more socially acceptable ones. Some teachers and parents create a sticker chart, in which several behaviors are listed (Figure 1). Sticker charts are a form of token economies, as described in the text. Each time children perform the behavior, they get a sticker, and after a certain number of stickers, they get a prize, or reinforcer. The goal is to increase acceptable behaviors and decrease misbehavior. Remember, it is best to reinforce desired behaviors, rather than to use punishment. In the classroom, the teacher can reinforce a wide range of behaviors, from students raising their hands, to walking quietly in the hall, to turning in their homework. At home, parents might create a behavior chart that rewards children for things such as putting away toys, brushing their teeth, and helping with dinner. In order for behavior modification to be effective, the reinforcement needs to be connected with the behavior; the reinforcement must matter to the child and be done consistently.

A photograph shows a child placing stickers on a chart hanging on the wall.

Time-out is another popular technique used in behavior modification with children. It operates on the principle of negative punishment. When a child demonstrates an undesirable behavior, she is removed from the desirable activity at hand (Figure 2). For example, say that Sophia and her brother Mario are playing with building blocks. Sophia throws some blocks at her brother, so you give her a warning that she will go to time-out if she does it again. A few minutes later, she throws more blocks at Mario. You remove Sophia from the room for a few minutes. When she comes back, she doesn’t throw blocks.

There are several important points that you should know if you plan to implement time-out as a behavior modification technique. First, make sure the child is being removed from a desirable activity and placed in a less desirable location. If the activity is something undesirable for the child, this technique will backfire because it is more enjoyable for the child to be removed from the activity. Second, the length of the time-out is important. The general rule of thumb is one minute for each year of the child’s age. Sophia is five; therefore, she sits in a time-out for five minutes. Setting a timer helps children know how long they have to sit in time-out. Finally, as a caregiver, keep several guidelines in mind over the course of a time-out: remain calm when directing your child to time-out; ignore your child during time-out (because caregiver attention may reinforce misbehavior); and give the child a hug or a kind word when time-out is over.

Photograph A shows several children climbing on playground equipment. Photograph B shows a child sitting alone at a table looking at the playground.

TRY IT

THINK IT OVER

  • Explain the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment, and provide several examples of each based on your own experiences.
  • Think of a behavior that you have that you would like to change. How could you use behavior modification, specifically positive reinforcement, to change your behavior? What is your positive reinforcer?

GLOSSARY

negative punishment: taking away a pleasant stimulus to decrease or stop a behavior negative reinforcement: taking away an undesirable stimulus to increase a behavior positive punishment: adding an undesirable stimulus to stop or decrease a behavior positive reinforcement: adding a desirable stimulus to increase a behavior primary reinforcer: has innate reinforcing qualities (e.g., food, water, shelter, sex)punishment: implementation of a consequence in order to decrease a behavior reinforcement: implementation of a consequence in order to increase a behavior secondary reinforcer: has no inherent value unto itself and only has reinforcing qualities when linked with something else (e.g., money, gold stars, poker chips)shaping: rewarding successive approximations toward a target behavior

December 11, 2017

High Impact Learning (HIL)

Filed under: Motivation,Performance Management,Success,Technical Training — David Fuhrmann @ 5:35 pm

High Impact Learning (HIL).

Robert Brinkerhoff High Impact Learning (HIL) is an invaluable tool that allows for every aspect of a process to be observed. High Impact Learning consists of strategies for leveraging business results from training. Based on 5 principles, HIL takes into account the many areas to be considered for organizational change.

Create a strategic leverage.

  • The first step is to create a Strategic leverage by identifying an organization’s strategic direction. By doing so, a determination can help decide where the organization’s biggest win can come from

Identify the deep business linkage.

  • This allows training to center on the goal of the organization. So, if the organization’s goal is to increase customer service, much energy can be focused on getting employees to engage in customer service training topics. “In the HIL approach, business linkage pervades all aspects of the training design, development, implementation, and evaluation process and is directly linked to individual performance” (Brinkerhoff, 2001).

Establishing a systematic learning to performance process.

  • This is based on the idea that learning and performance are integrally related. “Learning provides the capability to perform more effectively and performance provides the opportunity to deepen and extend learning” (Brinkerhoff, 2001).

Process Integration

  • The complexity of performance is driven by capability and other interpersonal factors such as attitude, expectation, and values, work cultures, management, and feedback.  Rewards and incentives also affect the learning process.
  • Brinkerhoff states, “Taking this fourth principle into consideration, sometimes we decide not to go forward at this point with the learning process because we’ve found the workplace environment so toxic, that it will prohibit performance improvement despite the best-learned capabilities”.

Exquisite learning solutions.

  • Exquisite learning solutions consist of online learning modules, workshops, games, simulations and print materials.
  • Employees should be able to learn only what they need to learn and have control over material and access to the materials, tools, and resources they need.
  • Training materials should consist of the most effective methods and techniques with multiple learning modalities and technologies. Learners should be able to be actively engaged in the most effective blend of content, practice, feedback, and reflective activities.
  • Finally, learner interaction and involvement should be promoted and opportunities should exist for participants and other stakeholders to provide feedback and critical reaction to learning leaders.
Objective Content Organization Learner
Awareness skill. Capabilities & resources. Audience size.
Real world simulation. Budget. Audience Location.
Synchronous versus asynchronous. Schedule. Requisite knowledge.
Audio-Video. Implementation needs. Learning Preferences.
Feedback. Performance data.
Performance Support. Cultural acceptance.
Content stability.
The consistency of message.

 

Taking all five of the HIL principles, impact maps can be created for each job description function that focuses on each of the principles and their objectives. In High Impact Learning, Brinkerhoff shows many models used in organizations. These impact maps require breaking down a job function into a step-by-step process with the end result of completing the task. When all of the steps are covered, you will get amazing results and a properly designed program.

There are several professionals in Organizational Development that write books on these types of changes. Some of the most popular are those specializing in the design of training programs.

Rober Mager wrote a six-part book series aimed at designing elite training program designed to address both the trainer and the trainee. These books teach a group of individuals how not only to train people but also how to design the modeling of the process being taught. Making instruction work, Measuring Instructional Results, and Prepping Instructional Objectives are the three I use most often, but you cannot go wrong getting the 6pack of these books.

To find out more about this or other mentioned process, please contact David Fuhrmann he may be reached in his Michigan office at 269.350.3281 or in New York at 347.687.4466. You may also email David at david@davidfuhrmann.com

References

Brinkerhoff, R. A. (2001). High Impact Learning. New York, NY, USA: Perseus Book Group.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. (2002). The Success Case Method (First Edition ed.). San Francisco, California, USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Mager, R. (2012). Making Instruction Work or Skill Bloomers. (Third Edition ed.). Carefree, AZ., USA: Mager Associates Inc.

Mager, R. F. (1997). Analyzing Performace Problems. Belmont, CA, USA: Lake Publishing Company.

Rimer, B. G. (2001, April). Health Behavior and Health Education THEORY, RESEARCH, AND PRACTICE. Health Education and Behavior, 28(2), 231-248. Retrieved from http://www.med.upenn.edu/: http://www.med.upenn.edu/hbhe4/part4-ch15-organizational-development-theory.shtml#top_anchor

The Organizational Development Network. (2017). (Organization Development Network.) Retrieved December 11, 2017, from The Organizational Development Network Advancing the Science Practice and Impact of OD: http://www.odnetwork.org/page/WhatIsOD

 

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